1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур




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Название1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур
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L. Y. Kirillova (Izhevsk, Russia)

Udmurt Oikonymy1

T he oikonyms of Udmurtland are various in their semantics as well as struc­ture. As regards their structure, Udmurt settlement names mostly consist of one or two components, the occurrence of those with three components is less frequent.

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур ’river, riverlet, spring’; somewhat less frequently ошмес ’(water) springs’, вай ’source, branch, branching off, tributary’, e.g.:

Изошур (Selt.)2 < изо ’stony’

Кöсшур ~ Кесшур (Shark., Jukam., Jak-B., Jar.) < кöс ’dry, waterless’ (> Russian кес)

Нюрошур (Kez., Jak-B.) < нюр ’swamp, moor’ + -o (suffix of possession)

Ондрeйшур ~ Андрейшур (Balez.) < Ондрeй anthroponym (< Russian Анд­рей)

Тылошур (Kez., Jak-B.) < тыло ’forest clearing, undergrowth’

Чебершур (Glaz., Mozhg.) < чебер ’beautiful’

Шурйыл ~ Шурил (Mozhg.) < йыл ’upper reaches, source of a river’ (> Russian ил)

Якшур (Zavyal., Jak-B.) < як < яг ’pine forest, forest’

Ошмес ~ Kľučevaja (Uv.)

Мырк Ошмес ~ Гущино (Mozhg.) < мырк ’steep, sheer’

Сьöд Ошмес ~ Черный Ключ (Aln.) < сьöд ’black’

Лынвай (Jak-B.) < лын probably ’southern’, cf. Udm. лыназе ’midday’, лум тöл ’southern wind’ (Munkácsi 1887: 153), Komi лун ’day; south, southern’

Нюровай (Deb.) < нюр ’swamp, moor, moorish’ + -o (suffix of possession)

Пуровай (Uv.) < пуро (the exact meaning is not found)

Т

ыловай
(Deb.) < тыло ’forest clearing, undergrowth’

Уйвай ~ Большой Уйвай (Syums.), Уйвай ~ Верхний Уйвай (Jak-B.) < уй ’northern’, etc.

The most widely spread appellative in Udmurt oikonymy is шур. Using data of the territorial and administrational division of the Udmurt ASSR for 1965, L. I. Kalinina (1967: 109) points out 243 such items, 6,7% of all the settlement names.

Having been lost in present-day Udmurt, some de-etymologized words are used as heads changed into topoformants, like -ва; -си ~ -zи ~ -чи; -ю, which used to mean ’river, water, water springs’.

In Udmurtland there are a few names with the element -ва:

Вавож (Vav.) < Ва is the local name of the river Uva; вож ’the branching off, tributary or mouth of a river’

Ва-Тукля ~ Ува-Тукля (Uv.) < Тукля Udmurt kin community name

Кыква (Kez., Shark., Jak-B.) < кык ’two’

Кушва (Kizn.) < куш ’glade, clearing’

Порва (Jak-B.) < пор ’Mari’ or ’Ugric’

Ува ~ Ва (Uv.) < у, possibly from ю, see below. In Komi toponymy this ap­pellative, as opposed to Udmurt, is fairly widespread (Kri­voshche­kova-Gantman 1973: 28, 1983: 22–24, Turkin 1967: 245).

The element -си can frequently be found in the toponymy of Udmurtland, e.g.:

Пумси (Syums.) < пум ’end, edge, countryside’

Сива (Votk.) < ва ’water, river’

Сишур (Vav.) < шур ’river, riverlet, stream’

Сия (Uv.) < -я topoformant

Сюмси (Syums.) < сюм ’inlet, creek, back-water’, etc.

The variants -zи and -чи are also current in geographical names, e.g.:

Итчи ~ Итчигурт (Uv.), Идzи ~ Вотка (Votk., Shark., Jak-B.) < ит ~ ид, meaning unknown

Кüатчи ~ Кватчи (Mozhg.) < кüат < кüать ’six’

Лудzи ~ Лудзилка (Vav.) < луд ’field’

Сьöдzи ~ Черный Ключ (Votk.) < сьöд ’black’

Сурzи ~ Малые Сюрзи (Uv.) < сур, meaning unknown, etc.

In contrast to Komi toponymy, the topoformant -ю in the Udmurt settlement name system is not amply represented and can be found in such names as

Ю-Тольён ~ Ю-Тольен (Kez.)

Ю-Чабья (Kez.) < Чабья name of an Udmurt kin

Юшур (Krasn.) < шур ’river, riverlet, stream’.

2

.
One of the most characteristic features of Udmurt oikonymy is the high frequency of kin community names, i.e. microethnonyms, in it. The emergence of kin communities has engaged several scholars and extensive specialist literature is devoted to the topic (for details see Atamanov 2001: 5–3

0). The most complete and most embracive theoretical treatment of their origin and reflection in toponymy is given, however, in studies by S. K.
Busmakin (1969: 166–176, 1970: 168–176, 1987: 116–124) and, in particular, by M. G. Atamanov (1975: 35–41, 1977a: 123–129, 1977b: 284–288, 1977c: 22–40, 1977d: 25–30, 1978a: 121–127, 1978b, 1980a: 3–66, 1980b: 67–88, 1980с: 89–117, 1982: 81–127, 1983: 111–115, 1988: 22–50, 1997: 72–79, 2001). M. G. Atamanov points out that the Udmurts are the only Finno-Ugric people who have rather completely preserved the relicts of an ancient kin-tribal division dating back to the age of matriarchate. So far 70 kin community names have been identified, e.g. Апъя, Бигра, Бöдья, Бия, Вамъя, Дурга, Xикъя, Zатча, Какся, Можга, Омга, Пельга, Пурга, Салья, Тукля, Уча, Чудьzа, Эгра, Юсь, etc., which are reflective of the old way of life of Udmurt kin communities inhabiting one or the other of the settlements. Several of the kin names go back to names of birds, beasts, insects, fishes and plants — the supposed kin totems. They occur not only in Udmurt but also Russian oikonyms or in the names of other geographical objects both in Udmurtland and beyond its borders. In the administrational and territorial statistics of the Udmurt ASSR for 1971 M. G. Atamanov (1988: 49) found that 283 oikonyms of 3136 settlements, i.e. 9% of them, contain Old Udmurt kin names. It is noteworthy that recently there has been a noticeable tendency for oikonyms from kin community names to be simplified, which means that the microethnonym part of the complex name is lost, e.g. Поршур-ТукляПоршур (Uv.), Чибирь-ЗюньяЧибыр (Selt.), Кей­луд-ЗюньяКейлуд (Selt.), and so on. Whereas the 1716, so-called “landrat” census shows that, in the territory which is the present-day Uva, Vavozh and Mozhga districts, 84% of the oikonyms contained Udmurt kin com­munity names, this figure has fallen to 20% by now (Atamanov 2001: 142).

*

As regards their structure, the settlements names of Udmurtland fall into three types.

A) One-component names, which can be divided into a few semantic subgroups:

1) Oikonyms that are appellatives reflecting the relief and the character of the locality or referring to objects in connection with the way of life and activities of people, e.g.:

Воли ~ Волипельга (Vav.) < воли ’clearing’, Пельга (kin community name)

Гоп ~ Гобгурт (Selt.), Гоп ~ Гоп-Пудга (Jak-B.) < гоб < гоп ’ravine’, гурт ’village’, Пудга (Udmurt kin community name)

Гу;ин ~ Русская Бабья (Syums.) < гу;ин ’old village site’, Бабья < Udm. Пöбъя (Udmurt kin community name)

Нюр ~ Кожиль (Glaz.) < нюр ’swamp’, Кожиль < кож ’pool’ + иль < Udm. йыл ’upper reaches, source’

Ошмес ~ Ключевая (Uv.) < ошмес ’source, springs’

Тыло ~ Старые Зятцы (Jak-B.) < тыло ’clearing’, Зятцы < Zачча (Udmurt kin community name)

Шур (Balez.) < шур ’river, riverlet’, etc.

2) Oikonyms containing the name of the founder, e.g.:

Акил ~ Акилово (Syums.) < Акил < Turkic < Arabic акил ’sensible, judicious’ (Atamanov 1990: 36) + -ово Russian suffix

Акмар ~ Акмарово (Vav.) < Акмар < Turkic < Arabic ахмар ’red’ (Ata­ma­nov 1990: 36)

Исак ~ Сюровай (Uv.) < Сюровай < сюро, probably from the Udmurt kin community name Сюра + вай ’branching-off, tributary’

Кельдык ~ Кельдыки (Glaz.) < Кельдык + -и Russian plural affix

Бакъяр ~ Бахтияры (Zavyal.) < Бакъяр < Бахтияр < Tatar Бäхтияр anthroponym < Arabic-Persian + -ы Russian plural affix, etc.

3) Oikonyms containing kin community names and referring to the settlement belonging to one or the other kin, e.g. Бöдья ~ Якшур-Бодья (Jak-B.) < Якшур < як < яг ’pine forest, forest’, шур ’river, riverlet’; Zачча ~ Но­вые Зятцы (Igr.); Булма ~ Балма (Syums.); Пöбъя ~ Пыбья (Balez.); Эбга ~ Верхняя Слудка (Glaz.); Чабъя ~ Ю-Чабья (Kez.) < Ю name of a river; Эгра ~ Игра (Igr.), etc.

4) Oikonyms reflecting the region’s fauna, e.g.:

Комак ~ Комакгурт (Uv.) < комак ’rat, hamster’, гурт ’village’

Ко;ыш ~ Кочиш (Jak-B.) < ко;ыш ’cat’

Кунян ~ Телицино (Syums.) < кунян ’calf’

Пороз ~ Порозово (Shark.) < пороз ’bull, bull used for mating’ + -ово Russian suffix

Урдо ~ Урдогурт (Uv.) < урдо ’(wild beast) chipmunk’, гурт ’village’

:ушъял ~ Макарово (Vav.), :ушъял (Чужъял) (Selt.) < чужъял < ;ушъял ’hedgehog’, etc.

5) Oikonyms formed from names of food products, e.g.:

Пунем ~ Пунем (Uv.) < пунем ’potato purée’

Табань ~ Табани (Mozhg.) < табань ’flat cake’

:ужъем ~ Чужьем (Mozhg.) < :ужъем ’malt’, etc.

6) Oikonyms formed from ethnonyms, e.g.:

Пор ~ Вутно (Selt.) < пор ’Mari’

Б

идер
~ Татарское Кизеково (Aln.) < бидер ’Tatar’, etc.

7) Oikonyms in the form of adjectives referring to a feature of the given object, e.g.:

Xуё ~ Пислег (Uv.) < Xуё ’mossy, moss-grown’ < xуй ’moss’ + -o suffix of possession

Изо ~ Ильино (Syums.) < изо ’stony, covered with stones’

Котрес ~ Старокаравайский выселок (Jak-B.) < котрес ’round-shaped’, Ста­рокаравайский < Каравай village name

Лыстэм ~ Лыстем (Selt.) < лыстем < лыстэм ’without needles (of a conifer)’

Шонер (Shark.) < шонер ’straight’, etc.

8) Oikonyms in the form of deverbal nouns or participles referring to a feature of the given object, e.g.:

Вожектэм ~ Вожектем (Syums.) < вожектем < вожектэм – participle from the verb вожектыны ’to turn green’

Гыбдан ~ Дыгдан (Uv.) < дыгдан – corrupted from гыбдан deverbal noun from гыбданы ’to decay, smoulder’

Xуштысь ~ Ново-Каменцы (Jak-B.) < xуштысь – participle from the verb xуштыны ’to groan’

Кüа;кам ~ Квачкам (Vav.) < квачкам < кüа;кам – participle from the verb кüа;каны ’to be destroyed/demolished, collapse’

Сыръян ~ Сырдяны (Uv.) < сырдяны – corrupted from сыръяны ’to surge, swell, quake (as of swamps)’

:уштаськем ~ Чистостем (Uv.) < чистостем < ;уштаськем – par­ti­ciple from the verb ;уштаськыны ’burn down’, etc.

B) Two-component oikonyms representing phrases. In most cases, such names have an appellative head or an Udmurt kin-community name as the second component, the occurrence of deverbal nouns or substantivized participles is less frequent in this position. The first component, functioning as an attribute, may denote:

1) A feature of the settlement, expressed by an adjective, e.g.:

Быzzымсурд ~ Старый Березняк (Mozhg.) < быzzым ’big’, сурд ’grove (of birches)’

Ваёкыр ~ Воякыр (Selt.) < воя – corrupted from ваё < вай ’branching off, tributary’ + -o suffix of possession, кыр ’clearing, glade’

Вылынгурт (Syums.) < вылын ’upper, on the top’, гурт ’village’

Гурезь-Партчи ~ Большая Гурезь-Пудга (Vav.) < гурезь ’hill’, партчи < парч- ’hill, height’ ~ Komi villages Парч, Парчöг, river Парчью, lake Парч­­вад (Turkin 1986: 86), -чи topoformant, Пудга kin community name

Зынты ~ Ворончихино (Kez.) < зын ’stinky’, ты ’lake’

К

узьяг
~ Еловский (Jar.) < кузь ’long’, яг ’pine forest, forest’

Кызошур ~ Арляново (Aln.) < кыз ’fir’ + -o suffix of possession

Пичи Пурга ~ Малая Пурга (M-Purg.) < пичи ’small’, Пурга Udmurt kin community name

Сьöдкыр ~ Сектыр (Igr.) < Сектыр – corrupted from Сьöдкыр < cьöд ’black’, кыр ’clearing, barren spot’, etc.

Binary opposition is used to form the oikonyms with the following attributes:

a) бадzым, зöк ’big’, пичи, покчи ’small’. These express the relative size of a settlement, e.g.:

Бадzым Кунян ~ Большая Кильмезь-Бия (Selt.) and Пичи Кунян ~ Малая Кильмезь-Бия (Selt.) < Кильмезь name of a river, Бия Udmurt kin com­muni­ty name, Кунян < кунян ’cow’

Бадzым Нöри ~ Большая Нырья (Selt.) and Покчи Нöри ~ Малая Нырья (Selt.) < Нöри, Нырья < Нöръя Udmurt kin community name

Зöк Малагпи ~ Большое Малагово (Jar.) and Пичи Малагпи ~ Малое Малагово (Jar.) < Малагпи < Малаг Udmurt patronymic + -пи patronymic prefix, -ово Russian suffix;

b) виль ’new’ and вуж ’old’ which refer to the relative age of a settlement, e.g.:

Виль Монья ~ Новая Монья (M-Purg., Selt.) and Вуж Монья ~ Старая Монья (M-Purg., Selt.) < Монья Udmurt kin community name

Виль Юбера ~ Новые Юбери (Mozhg.) and Вуж Юбера ~ Старые Юбе­ри (Mozhg.) < Юбера, Юбери Udmurt kin community name, etc.

2) Name of the founder of a settlement, e.g.:

Аксак починка ~ Куюки (M-Purg.) < Аксак anthroponym, починка ’outpost settlement’, Куюки < Tatar кsек ’plot of land scorched for ploughing’ + -и Russian plural affix

Даньло починка ~ Даниловцы (Jak-B.) < Даньло < Russian Даниил anthroponym, по­чин­ка ’outpost settlement’

Иннакей починка ~ Артемьевцы (Jak-B.) < Иннакей < Russian Ин­но­кен­тий anthroponym, починка ’outpost settlement’, Артемьевцы < Артемьев sur­name

Кайсыгурт ~ Кайсегурт (Shark.), Кайсыгурт ~ Бармашур (Jar.) < Кайсе < Кайсы Old Udmurt anthroponym < кайсы ’(bird) crossbill’, гурт ’vil­lage’, Барма Turkic anthroponym, шур ’river, riverlet’

Мадьяр ~ Мадьярово (Selt.) < Мадьяр < Мади anthroponym, яр ’(steep) bank, ravine’, -ово Russian suffix

Педоргурт ~ Федоры (Selt.) < Педор < Russian Федор anthroponym, гурт ’village’, -ы Russian plural suffix

Эдэйгурт ~ Бобья-Уча (M-Purg.) < Эдэй anthroponym < Turkic ид ~ ед ’pro­perty, wealth’ + -эй affix (Атаманов 1997: 204), гурт ’village’, Бобья river name, Уча Udmurt kin community name

Э

шметьгурт
(Selt.) < Эшметь anthroponym, гурт ’village’, etc.

3) Udmurt kin community names, e.g.:

Биграгурт ~ Дизьмино (Jar.) < Бигра kin community name, гурт ’village’, Дизьмино < Дизма anthroponym < Turkic (Atamanov 1990: 159), -ино Russian suffix

Бöдья-Пуро ~ Сундуково (M-Purg.) < Бöдья kin community name, Пуро, meaning unknown, Сундуково, probably from an anthroponym, cf. Сандук (Atamanov 1990: 286) + -ово Russian suffix

Бöзьыгурт ~ Бозино (Glaz.) < Бозя anthroponym, гурт ’village’, -ино Russian suffix

Малягурт (Krasn.) < Маля kin community name, гурт ’village’

Вортчагурт ~ Вортчино (Shark.) < Вортча kin community name, гурт ’village’

Чуzzалуд ~ Чудзялуд (Vav.) < Чуzzа kin community name, луд ’field’

Шудzавöль ~ Кельдыш (Shark.) < Шудzа kin community name, вöль ’clearing’, Кельдыш Turkic anthroponym

Эгралуд ~ Евгралуд (Uv.) < Эгра kin community name, луд ’field’, etc.

4) Name of the river by which a settlement is situated, e.g.:

Варzылкутыр ~ Холодный Ключ (Aln.) < варzыл < Варzи name of a river, ыл < йыл ’upper reaches, source’, кутыр ’farmstead’

Ва-Тукля ~ Ува-Тукля (Uv.) < Ва Udmurt name of the river Uva, Тукля kin community name

Итчигурт (Uv.) < Итчи name of a river, гурт ’village’

Кўатчийыл ~ Верхние Кватчи (Mozhg.) < Кўатчи name of a river, йыл ’upper reaches, source’

Лудзил ~ Лудзил-Тукля (Selt.) < Лудзил < Лудзи name of a river, ил < йыл ’upper reaches, source’, Тукля Udmurt kin community name

Сюныгйыл ~ Эгыр (Syums.) < Сюныг name of a river, йыл ’upper reaches, source’, эгыр ’marshy forest’, cf. Komi егыр ’marshy (pine) forest’ (KRSlov. 218), Komi-Permyak ’marshy forest’ (KPRSlov. 135)

Сюрыгдур ~ Кузьмино (Syums.) < Сюрыг Udmurt name of the river Śurek, дур ’(river) bank, countryside’, Кузьмино < Кузьма may have been the founder’s name, etc.

Names of settlements situated near one particular river are often formed by so-called “binary opposition” and refer to the location of a settlement in relation to the upper, middle or lower reaches of a river. Such names usually take the attributes вылi, вылiнь, вылын ’upper’ and улi, улiнь, улын ’lower’, sometimes шор, шоринь, шорын ’middle’, e.g.:

У

лын
Асангурт ~ Нижнее Асаново (Aln.) and Вылын Асангурт ~ Верх­нее Асаново (Aln.) < Асан аnthroponym, гурт ’village’, -ово Russian suffix

Вылi Котныр ~ Верхнее Котнырево (Aln.) and Улi Котныр ~ Нижнее Кот­нырево (Aln.) < кот ’raw, damp, marshy’, ныр ’small point of land running into sea, sand-bar, shallow, cape’, -ево Russian suffix

Вылiнь Юри ~ Верхние Юри (M-Purg.) < Юри name of a riverlet.

5) Nationalities inhabiting a settlement, with the frequent use of the attributes удмурт ~ удмуртский ’Udmurt’, zуч ~ русский ’Russian’, пор ~ ма­рий­ский ’Mari’, бигер ~ татарский ’Tatar’, немец ’German’, e.g.:

Бигер Бöня ~ Близ-Варыж (Balez.) < Бöня Udmurt kin community name, близ Russian preposition ’near’, Варыж river name

Zуч Пöбъя ~ Русская Бабья (Syums.) < Бабья < Пöбъя Udmurt kin community name

Удмурт Кизекгурт ~ Удмуртское Кизеково (Aln.) and Бигер Кизег­гурт ~ Татарское Кизеково (Aln.) < Кизек аnthroponym, Udmurt гурт ’village’, -ово Russian suffix

Удмурт Гондыр ~ Удмуртское Гондырево (Aln.) and Пор Гондыр ~ Ма­рийское Гондырево (Aln.) < Гондыр Old Udmurt anthroponym < гондыр ’bear’, -ево Russian suffix

Поргурт ~ Порово (Jukam.) < гурт ’village’, -ово Russian suffix

Нюрдор-Котья ~ Немец посёлок (Vav.) < нюр ’marsh’, дор ’around, near’, Котья Udmurt kin community name, посёлок ’settlement’, etc.

6) Settlement left for a new dwelling place, e.g.:

Голлян починка ~ Гольянский (Zavyal.) < Голлян – village Гольяны, по­чинка ’outpost settement’

Лудzи починка ~ Лудзинский (Selt.) < Лудzи – village Лудзи-Жикья, по­чинка ’outpost settlement’

Кучёр кутор ~ Юбилей (Selt.) < Кучёр – village Кучёр, кутор ’farmstead’

Уча кутор ~ Изонюк (M-Purg.) < Уча – village Ильинское, кутор ’farm­stead’, изо ’stony’ нюк ’ravine’

Сюмси высёлка ~ Выселок (Syums.) < Сюмси – village Сюмси, высёлка ’new village/settlement’

Удгурт выселка ~ Уть-Сюмсинский (Selt.) < Удгурт – village Уть-Сюмси, выселка ’new village/settlement’, etc.

These oikonyms are mostly names of new villages, settlements or farmsteads.

7) The location of a settlement in relation to other geographical objects, e.g.:

Гурезьйыл ~ Сосновый Ключ (Mozhg.) < гурезь ’hill’, йыл ’peak, at the top’

Возьпум ~ Аравазь-Пельга (Kizn.) < возь ’meadow’, пум ’end’, Ара­вазь, meaning unknown, Пельга kin community name

Вукодор ~ Карпово (Syums.) < вуко ’mill’, дор ’around, near’, Карпово < Кар­пов surname, -о Russian suffix

К

арйыл
(Balez.) < кар ’site of a town’, йыл ’peak, at the top’

Кüасьöр ~ Квасер (Kez.) < кüа ’sanctuary (place for family prayer)’, сьöр ’behind’

Тыловыл ~ Тыловыл-Пельга (Vav.) < тыло ’clearing’, выл ’surface’, Пель­га kin community name

Тылойыл ~ Малая Валожикья (Mozhg.) < тыло ’clearing’, йыл ’peak, at the top’, Вало river name, Жикья < Xикъя kin community name

Шоргурт ~ Сыга 2 (Kez.) < шор ’middle, in the middle’, гурт ’village’, Сыга river name, 2 (second) – order of location of the village

Шурйыл ~ Шурил (Mozhg.) < шур ’river, riverlet’, ил < йыл ’upper reaches, source of a river’

Ягул (Zavyal) < яг ’pine forest, forest’, ул ’below, lower’, etc.

8) The flora and the characteristics of the scenery of the region, e.g.:

Бадьнюк ~ Баднюк (M-Purg.) < бад < бадь ’willow’, нюк ’ravine’

Xуё-Можга ~ Жуе-Можга (Vav.) < жуе < xуё < xуй ’field’ + -o suffix of possession, Можга kin community name

Zеглуд ~ Зеглуд (Jak-B.) < зег < zег ’rye’, луд ’field’

Кызошур ~ Арляново (Aln.) < кызо < кыз ’fir, spruce’ + -o possessive suffix, шур ’river, riverlet’, Арляново < Арлан anthroponym < арлан ’hamster’ + -ово Russian suffix

Сутэрнюк (Mozhg.) < сутэр ’currants’, нюк ’ravine’

Тэльгурт ~ Теньгурт (Uv.) < тень – corrupted from тэль ’forest’, гурт ’village’

:ашкагурт ~ Чашкагурт (Selt.) < ;ашка ’thick of a forest’, гурт ’village’

Яголуд (Vav.) < яг ’(pine) forest + -o possessive suffix, луд ’field’

Ягошур (Glaz.) < яг ’(pine) forest + -o possessive suffix, шур ’river, riverlet’.

9) Fauna of the region, e.g.:

Атасгурт ~ Петухово (Vav.) < атас ’rooster’, гурт ’village’

Бакагурт ~ Малая Валожикья (Mozhg.) < бака ’frog’, гурт ’village’, Вало river name, Жикья < Xикъя kin community name

Zозлуд ~ Зязлуд-Какси (Vav.) < зяз < zоз ’grasshopper’, луд ’field’, Какси < Какся kin community name

Кечгурт ~ Кежгурт (Syums.) < кеж – corrupted from кеч ’rabbit’, гурт ’village’

Коблагурт ~ Акмарово (Vav.) < кобла ’mare’, гурт ’village’, Акмарово < Акмар аnthroponym, -ово Russian suffix

Кыйлуд ~ Кейлуд-Зюнья (Selt.) < кей < кый ’snake’, Зюнья < Zуння kin community name

Парсьгурт ~ Пажгурт (Selt.) < паж – corrupted from парсь ’pig’, гурт ’village’

П

исэйгурт
~ Писеево (Aln.) < писе- < писэй ’cat’, гурт ’village’, -ево Russian suffix

Пыныгурт ~ Собакино (M-Purg.) < пыны ’dog’, гурт ’village’

Чуньыгурт ~ Жеребенки (Zavyal.) < чуньы ’foal’, гурт ’village’, etc.

10) Objects of economic importance, e.g.:

Вукогурт ~ Нижнее Корякино (Shark.) < вуко ’mill’, гурт ’village’, Корякин surname + -о Russian suffix

Кüашур ~ Квашур (Vav., Selt.) < кüа ’sanctuary, place for family prayer’, шур ’river, riverlet’, etc.

11) Events of human life, e.g.:

Бигержуам ~ Иманай (Jukam.) < бигер ’Tatar’, жуам ’burnt down’

Пашкаxуам ~ Силья (Uv.) < Пашка аnthroponym < Russian Павел, xуам ’burnt down’.
  1   2   3

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