1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур




Скачать 230.81 Kb.
Название1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур
страница1/2
Дата конвертации01.02.2013
Размер230.81 Kb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2


L. Y. Kirillova (Izhevsk, Russia)

Udmurt Oikonymy1


T he oikonyms of Udmurtland are various in their semantics as well as struc­ture. As regards their structure, Udmurt settlement names mostly consist of one or two components, the occurrence of those with three components is less frequent.

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур ’river, riverlet, spring’; somewhat less frequently ошмес ’(water) springs’, вай ’source, branch, branching off, tributary’, e.g.:

Изошур (Selt.)2 < изо ’stony’

Кöсшур ~ Кесшур (Shark., Jukam., Jak-B., Jar.) < кöс ’dry, waterless’ (> Russian кес)

Нюрошур (Kez., Jak-B.) < нюр ’swamp, moor’ + -o (suffix of possession)

Ондрeйшур ~ Андрейшур (Balez.) < Ондрeй anthroponym (< Russian Анд­рей)

Тылошур (Kez., Jak-B.) < тыло ’forest clearing, undergrowth’

Чебершур (Glaz., Mozhg.) < чебер ’beautiful’

Шурйыл ~ Шурил (Mozhg.) < йыл ’upper reaches, source of a river’ (> Russian ил)

Якшур (Zavyal., Jak-B.) < як < яг ’pine forest, forest’

Ошмес ~ Kľučevaja (Uv.)

Мырк Ошмес ~ Гущино (Mozhg.) < мырк ’steep, sheer’

Сьöд Ошмес ~ Черный Ключ (Aln.) < сьöд ’black’

Лынвай (Jak-B.) < лын probably ’southern’, cf. Udm. лыназе ’midday’, лум тöл ’southern wind’ (Munkácsi 1887: 153), Komi лун ’day; south, southern’

Нюровай (Deb.) < нюр ’swamp, moor, moorish’ + -o (suffix of possession)

Пуровай (Uv.) < пуро (the exact meaning is not found)

Т

ыловай
(Deb.) < тыло ’forest clearing, undergrowth’

Уйвай ~ Большой Уйвай (Syums.), Уйвай ~ Верхний Уйвай (Jak-B.) < уй ’northern’, etc.

The most widely spread appellative in Udmurt oikonymy is шур. Using data of the territorial and administrational division of the Udmurt ASSR for 1965, L. I. Kalinina (1967: 109) points out 243 such items, 6,7% of all the settlement names.

Having been lost in present-day Udmurt, some de-etymologized words are used as heads changed into topoformants, like -ва; -си ~ -zи ~ -чи; -ю, which used to mean ’river, water, water springs’.

In Udmurtland there are a few names with the element -ва:

Вавож (Vav.) < Ва is the local name of the river Uva; вож ’the branching off, tributary or mouth of a river’

Ва-Тукля ~ Ува-Тукля (Uv.) < Тукля Udmurt kin community name

Кыква (Kez., Shark., Jak-B.) < кык ’two’

Кушва (Kizn.) < куш ’glade, clearing’

Порва (Jak-B.) < пор ’Mari’ or ’Ugric’

Ува ~ Ва (Uv.) < у, possibly from ю, see below. In Komi toponymy this ap­pellative, as opposed to Udmurt, is fairly widespread (Kri­voshche­kova-Gantman 1973: 28, 1983: 22–24, Turkin 1967: 245).

The element -си can frequently be found in the toponymy of Udmurtland, e.g.:

Пумси (Syums.) < пум ’end, edge, countryside’

Сива (Votk.) < ва ’water, river’

Сишур (Vav.) < шур ’river, riverlet, stream’

Сия (Uv.) < -я topoformant

Сюмси (Syums.) < сюм ’inlet, creek, back-water’, etc.

The variants -zи and -чи are also current in geographical names, e.g.:

Итчи ~ Итчигурт (Uv.), Идzи ~ Вотка (Votk., Shark., Jak-B.) < ит ~ ид, meaning unknown

Кüатчи ~ Кватчи (Mozhg.) < кüат < кüать ’six’

Лудzи ~ Лудзилка (Vav.) < луд ’field’

Сьöдzи ~ Черный Ключ (Votk.) < сьöд ’black’

Сурzи ~ Малые Сюрзи (Uv.) < сур, meaning unknown, etc.

In contrast to Komi toponymy, the topoformant -ю in the Udmurt settlement name system is not amply represented and can be found in such names as

Ю-Тольён ~ Ю-Тольен (Kez.)

Ю-Чабья (Kez.) < Чабья name of an Udmurt kin

Юшур (Krasn.) < шур ’river, riverlet, stream’.

2

.
One of the most characteristic features of Udmurt oikonymy is the high frequency of kin community names, i.e. microethnonyms, in it. The emergence of kin communities has engaged several scholars and extensive specialist literature is devoted to the topic (for details see Atamanov 2001: 5–3

0). The most complete and most embracive theoretical treatment of their origin and reflection in toponymy is given, however, in studies by S. K.
Busmakin (1969: 166–176, 1970: 168–176, 1987: 116–124) and, in particular, by M. G. Atamanov (1975: 35–41, 1977a: 123–129, 1977b: 284–288, 1977c: 22–40, 1977d: 25–30, 1978a: 121–127, 1978b, 1980a: 3–66, 1980b: 67–88, 1980с: 89–117, 1982: 81–127, 1983: 111–115, 1988: 22–50, 1997: 72–79, 2001). M. G. Atamanov points out that the Udmurts are the only Finno-Ugric people who have rather completely preserved the relicts of an ancient kin-tribal division dating back to the age of matriarchate. So far 70 kin community names have been identified, e.g. Апъя, Бигра, Бöдья, Бия, Вамъя, Дурга, Xикъя, Zатча, Какся, Можга, Омга, Пельга, Пурга, Салья, Тукля, Уча, Чудьzа, Эгра, Юсь, etc., which are reflective of the old way of life of Udmurt kin communities inhabiting one or the other of the settlements. Several of the kin names go back to names of birds, beasts, insects, fishes and plants — the supposed kin totems. They occur not only in Udmurt but also Russian oikonyms or in the names of other geographical objects both in Udmurtland and beyond its borders. In the administrational and territorial statistics of the Udmurt ASSR for 1971 M. G. Atamanov (1988: 49) found that 283 oikonyms of 3136 settlements, i.e. 9% of them, contain Old Udmurt kin names. It is noteworthy that recently there has been a noticeable tendency for oikonyms from kin community names to be simplified, which means that the microethnonym part of the complex name is lost, e.g. Поршур-ТукляПоршур (Uv.), Чибирь-ЗюньяЧибыр (Selt.), Кей­луд-ЗюньяКейлуд (Selt.), and so on. Whereas the 1716, so-called “landrat” census shows that, in the territory which is the present-day Uva, Vavozh and Mozhga districts, 84% of the oikonyms contained Udmurt kin com­munity names, this figure has fallen to 20% by now (Atamanov 2001: 142).

*

As regards their structure, the settlements names of Udmurtland fall into three types.

A) One-component names, which can be divided into a few semantic subgroups:

1) Oikonyms that are appellatives reflecting the relief and the character of the locality or referring to objects in connection with the way of life and activities of people, e.g.:

Воли ~ Волипельга (Vav.) < воли ’clearing’, Пельга (kin community name)

Гоп ~ Гобгурт (Selt.), Гоп ~ Гоп-Пудга (Jak-B.) < гоб < гоп ’ravine’, гурт ’village’, Пудга (Udmurt kin community name)

Гу;ин ~ Русская Бабья (Syums.) < гу;ин ’old village site’, Бабья < Udm. Пöбъя (Udmurt kin community name)

Нюр ~ Кожиль (Glaz.) < нюр ’swamp’, Кожиль < кож ’pool’ + иль < Udm. йыл ’upper reaches, source’

Ошмес ~ Ключевая (Uv.) < ошмес ’source, springs’

Тыло ~ Старые Зятцы (Jak-B.) < тыло ’clearing’, Зятцы < Zачча (Udmurt kin community name)

Шур (Balez.) < шур ’river, riverlet’, etc.

2) Oikonyms containing the name of the founder, e.g.:

Акил ~ Акилово (Syums.) < Акил < Turkic < Arabic акил ’sensible, judicious’ (Atamanov 1990: 36) + -ово Russian suffix

Акмар ~ Акмарово (Vav.) < Акмар < Turkic < Arabic ахмар ’red’ (Ata­ma­nov 1990: 36)

Исак ~ Сюровай (Uv.) < Сюровай < сюро, probably from the Udmurt kin community name Сюра + вай ’branching-off, tributary’

Кельдык ~ Кельдыки (Glaz.) < Кельдык + -и Russian plural affix

Бакъяр ~ Бахтияры (Zavyal.) < Бакъяр < Бахтияр < Tatar Бäхтияр anthroponym < Arabic-Persian + -ы Russian plural affix, etc.

3) Oikonyms containing kin community names and referring to the settlement belonging to one or the other kin, e.g. Бöдья ~ Якшур-Бодья (Jak-B.) < Якшур < як < яг ’pine forest, forest’, шур ’river, riverlet’; Zачча ~ Но­вые Зятцы (Igr.); Булма ~ Балма (Syums.); Пöбъя ~ Пыбья (Balez.); Эбга ~ Верхняя Слудка (Glaz.); Чабъя ~ Ю-Чабья (Kez.) < Ю name of a river; Эгра ~ Игра (Igr.), etc.

4) Oikonyms reflecting the region’s fauna, e.g.:

Комак ~ Комакгурт (Uv.) < комак ’rat, hamster’, гурт ’village’

Ко;ыш ~ Кочиш (Jak-B.) < ко;ыш ’cat’

Кунян ~ Телицино (Syums.) < кунян ’calf’

Пороз ~ Порозово (Shark.) < пороз ’bull, bull used for mating’ + -ово Russian suffix

Урдо ~ Урдогурт (Uv.) < урдо ’(wild beast) chipmunk’, гурт ’village’

:ушъял ~ Макарово (Vav.), :ушъял (Чужъял) (Selt.) < чужъял < ;ушъял ’hedgehog’, etc.

5) Oikonyms formed from names of food products, e.g.:

Пунем ~ Пунем (Uv.) < пунем ’potato purée’

Табань ~ Табани (Mozhg.) < табань ’flat cake’

:ужъем ~ Чужьем (Mozhg.) < :ужъем ’malt’, etc.

6) Oikonyms formed from ethnonyms, e.g.:

Пор ~ Вутно (Selt.) < пор ’Mari’

Б

идер
~ Татарское Кизеково (Aln.) < бидер ’Tatar’, etc.

7) Oikonyms in the form of adjectives referring to a feature of the given object, e.g.:

Xуё ~ Пислег (Uv.) < Xуё ’mossy, moss-grown’ < xуй ’moss’ + -o suffix of possession

Изо ~ Ильино (Syums.) < изо ’stony, covered with stones’

Котрес ~ Старокаравайский выселок (Jak-B.) < котрес ’round-shaped’, Ста­рокаравайский < Каравай village name

Лыстэм ~ Лыстем (Selt.) < лыстем < лыстэм ’without needles (of a conifer)’

Шонер (Shark.) < шонер ’straight’, etc.

8) Oikonyms in the form of deverbal nouns or participles referring to a feature of the given object, e.g.:

Вожектэм ~ Вожектем (Syums.) < вожектем < вожектэм – participle from the verb вожектыны ’to turn green’

Гыбдан ~ Дыгдан (Uv.) < дыгдан – corrupted from гыбдан deverbal noun from гыбданы ’to decay, smoulder’

Xуштысь ~ Ново-Каменцы (Jak-B.) < xуштысь – participle from the verb xуштыны ’to groan’

Кüа;кам ~ Квачкам (Vav.) < квачкам < кüа;кам – participle from the verb кüа;каны ’to be destroyed/demolished, collapse’

Сыръян ~ Сырдяны (Uv.) < сырдяны – corrupted from сыръяны ’to surge, swell, quake (as of swamps)’

:уштаськем ~ Чистостем (Uv.) < чистостем < ;уштаськем – par­ti­ciple from the verb ;уштаськыны ’burn down’, etc.

B) Two-component oikonyms representing phrases. In most cases, such names have an appellative head or an Udmurt kin-community name as the second component, the occurrence of deverbal nouns or substantivized participles is less frequent in this position. The first component, functioning as an attribute, may denote:

1) A feature of the settlement, expressed by an adjective, e.g.:

Быzzымсурд ~ Старый Березняк (Mozhg.) < быzzым ’big’, сурд ’grove (of birches)’

Ваёкыр ~ Воякыр (Selt.) < воя – corrupted from ваё < вай ’branching off, tributary’ + -o suffix of possession, кыр ’clearing, glade’

Вылынгурт (Syums.) < вылын ’upper, on the top’, гурт ’village’

Гурезь-Партчи ~ Большая Гурезь-Пудга (Vav.) < гурезь ’hill’, партчи < парч- ’hill, height’ ~ Komi villages Парч, Парчöг, river Парчью, lake Парч­­вад (Turkin 1986: 86), -чи topoformant, Пудга kin community name

Зынты ~ Ворончихино (Kez.) < зын ’stinky’, ты ’lake’

К

узьяг
~ Еловский (Jar.) < кузь ’long’, яг ’pine forest, forest’

Кызошур ~ Арляново (Aln.) < кыз ’fir’ + -o suffix of possession

Пичи Пурга ~ Малая Пурга (M-Purg.) < пичи ’small’, Пурга Udmurt kin community name

Сьöдкыр ~ Сектыр (Igr.) < Сектыр – corrupted from Сьöдкыр < cьöд ’black’, кыр ’clearing, barren spot’, etc.

Binary opposition is used to form the oikonyms with the following attributes:

a) бадzым, зöк ’big’, пичи, покчи ’small’. These express the relative size of a settlement, e.g.:

Бадzым Кунян ~ Большая Кильмезь-Бия (Selt.) and Пичи Кунян ~ Малая Кильмезь-Бия (Selt.) < Кильмезь name of a river, Бия Udmurt kin com­muni­ty name, Кунян < кунян ’cow’

Бадzым Нöри ~ Большая Нырья (Selt.) and Покчи Нöри ~ Малая Нырья (Selt.) < Нöри, Нырья < Нöръя Udmurt kin community name

Зöк Малагпи ~ Большое Малагово (Jar.) and Пичи Малагпи ~ Малое Малагово (Jar.) < Малагпи < Малаг Udmurt patronymic + -пи patronymic prefix, -ово Russian suffix;

b) виль ’new’ and вуж ’old’ which refer to the relative age of a settlement, e.g.:

Виль Монья ~ Новая Монья (M-Purg., Selt.) and Вуж Монья ~ Старая Монья (M-Purg., Selt.) < Монья Udmurt kin community name

Виль Юбера ~ Новые Юбери (Mozhg.) and Вуж Юбера ~ Старые Юбе­ри (Mozhg.) < Юбера, Юбери Udmurt kin community name, etc.

2) Name of the founder of a settlement, e.g.:

Аксак починка ~ Куюки (M-Purg.) < Аксак anthroponym, починка ’outpost settlement’, Куюки < Tatar кsек ’plot of land scorched for ploughing’ + -и Russian plural affix

Даньло починка ~ Даниловцы (Jak-B.) < Даньло < Russian Даниил anthroponym, по­чин­ка ’outpost settlement’

Иннакей починка ~ Артемьевцы (Jak-B.) < Иннакей < Russian Ин­но­кен­тий anthroponym, починка ’outpost settlement’, Артемьевцы < Артемьев sur­name

Кайсыгурт ~ Кайсегурт (Shark.), Кайсыгурт ~ Бармашур (Jar.) < Кайсе < Кайсы Old Udmurt anthroponym < кайсы ’(bird) crossbill’, гурт ’vil­lage’, Барма Turkic anthroponym, шур ’river, riverlet’

Мадьяр ~ Мадьярово (Selt.) < Мадьяр < Мади anthroponym, яр ’(steep) bank, ravine’, -ово Russian suffix

Педоргурт ~ Федоры (Selt.) < Педор < Russian Федор anthroponym, гурт ’village’, -ы Russian plural suffix

Эдэйгурт ~ Бобья-Уча (M-Purg.) < Эдэй anthroponym < Turkic ид ~ ед ’pro­perty, wealth’ + -эй affix (Атаманов 1997: 204), гурт ’village’, Бобья river name, Уча Udmurt kin community name

Э

шметьгурт
(Selt.) < Эшметь anthroponym, гурт ’village’, etc.

3) Udmurt kin community names, e.g.:

Биграгурт ~ Дизьмино (Jar.) < Бигра kin community name, гурт ’village’, Дизьмино < Дизма anthroponym < Turkic (Atamanov 1990: 159), -ино Russian suffix

Бöдья-Пуро ~ Сундуково (M-Purg.) < Бöдья kin community name, Пуро, meaning unknown, Сундуково, probably from an anthroponym, cf. Сандук (Atamanov 1990: 286) + -ово Russian suffix

Бöзьыгурт ~ Бозино (Glaz.) < Бозя anthroponym, гурт ’village’, -ино Russian suffix

Малягурт (Krasn.) < Маля kin community name, гурт ’village’

Вортчагурт ~ Вортчино (Shark.) < Вортча kin community name, гурт ’village’

Чуzzалуд ~ Чудзялуд (Vav.) < Чуzzа kin community name, луд ’field’

Шудzавöль ~ Кельдыш (Shark.) < Шудzа kin community name, вöль ’clearing’, Кельдыш Turkic anthroponym

Эгралуд ~ Евгралуд (Uv.) < Эгра kin community name, луд ’field’, etc.

4) Name of the river by which a settlement is situated, e.g.:

Варzылкутыр ~ Холодный Ключ (Aln.) < варzыл < Варzи name of a river, ыл < йыл ’upper reaches, source’, кутыр ’farmstead’

Ва-Тукля ~ Ува-Тукля (Uv.) < Ва Udmurt name of the river Uva, Тукля kin community name

Итчигурт (Uv.) < Итчи name of a river, гурт ’village’

Кўатчийыл ~ Верхние Кватчи (Mozhg.) < Кўатчи name of a river, йыл ’upper reaches, source’

Лудзил ~ Лудзил-Тукля (Selt.) < Лудзил < Лудзи name of a river, ил < йыл ’upper reaches, source’, Тукля Udmurt kin community name

Сюныгйыл ~ Эгыр (Syums.) < Сюныг name of a river, йыл ’upper reaches, source’, эгыр ’marshy forest’, cf. Komi егыр ’marshy (pine) forest’ (KRSlov. 218), Komi-Permyak ’marshy forest’ (KPRSlov. 135)

Сюрыгдур ~ Кузьмино (Syums.) < Сюрыг Udmurt name of the river Śurek, дур ’(river) bank, countryside’, Кузьмино < Кузьма may have been the founder’s name, etc.

Names of settlements situated near one particular river are often formed by so-called “binary opposition” and refer to the location of a settlement in relation to the upper, middle or lower reaches of a river. Such names usually take the attributes вылi, вылiнь, вылын ’upper’ and улi, улiнь, улын ’lower’, sometimes шор, шоринь, шорын ’middle’, e.g.:

У

лын
Асангурт ~ Нижнее Асаново (Aln.) and Вылын Асангурт ~ Верх­нее Асаново (Aln.) < Асан аnthroponym, гурт ’village’, -ово Russian suffix

Вылi Котныр ~ Верхнее Котнырево (Aln.) and Улi Котныр ~ Нижнее Кот­нырево (Aln.) < кот ’raw, damp, marshy’, ныр ’small point of land running into sea, sand-bar, shallow, cape’, -ево Russian suffix

Вылiнь Юри ~ Верхние Юри (M-Purg.) < Юри name of a riverlet.

5) Nationalities inhabiting a settlement, with the frequent use of the attributes удмурт ~ удмуртский ’Udmurt’, zуч ~ русский ’Russian’, пор ~ ма­рий­ский ’Mari’, бигер ~ татарский ’Tatar’, немец ’German’, e.g.:

Бигер Бöня ~ Близ-Варыж (Balez.) < Бöня Udmurt kin community name, близ Russian preposition ’near’, Варыж river name

Zуч Пöбъя ~ Русская Бабья (Syums.) < Бабья < Пöбъя Udmurt kin community name

Удмурт Кизекгурт ~ Удмуртское Кизеково (Aln.) and Бигер Кизег­гурт ~ Татарское Кизеково (Aln.) < Кизек аnthroponym, Udmurt гурт ’village’, -ово Russian suffix

Удмурт Гондыр ~ Удмуртское Гондырево (Aln.) and Пор Гондыр ~ Ма­рийское Гондырево (Aln.) < Гондыр Old Udmurt anthroponym < гондыр ’bear’, -ево Russian suffix

Поргурт ~ Порово (Jukam.) < гурт ’village’, -ово Russian suffix

Нюрдор-Котья ~ Немец посёлок (Vav.) < нюр ’marsh’, дор ’around, near’, Котья Udmurt kin community name, посёлок ’settlement’, etc.

6) Settlement left for a new dwelling place, e.g.:

Голлян починка ~ Гольянский (Zavyal.) < Голлян – village Гольяны, по­чинка ’outpost settement’

Лудzи починка ~ Лудзинский (Selt.) < Лудzи – village Лудзи-Жикья, по­чинка ’outpost settlement’

Кучёр кутор ~ Юбилей (Selt.) < Кучёр – village Кучёр, кутор ’farmstead’

Уча кутор ~ Изонюк (M-Purg.) < Уча – village Ильинское, кутор ’farm­stead’, изо ’stony’ нюк ’ravine’

Сюмси высёлка ~ Выселок (Syums.) < Сюмси – village Сюмси, высёлка ’new village/settlement’

Удгурт выселка ~ Уть-Сюмсинский (Selt.) < Удгурт – village Уть-Сюмси, выселка ’new village/settlement’, etc.

These oikonyms are mostly names of new villages, settlements or farmsteads.

7) The location of a settlement in relation to other geographical objects, e.g.:

Гурезьйыл ~ Сосновый Ключ (Mozhg.) < гурезь ’hill’, йыл ’peak, at the top’

Возьпум ~ Аравазь-Пельга (Kizn.) < возь ’meadow’, пум ’end’, Ара­вазь, meaning unknown, Пельга kin community name

Вукодор ~ Карпово (Syums.) < вуко ’mill’, дор ’around, near’, Карпово < Кар­пов surname, -о Russian suffix

К

арйыл
(Balez.) < кар ’site of a town’, йыл ’peak, at the top’

Кüасьöр ~ Квасер (Kez.) < кüа ’sanctuary (place for family prayer)’, сьöр ’behind’

Тыловыл ~ Тыловыл-Пельга (Vav.) < тыло ’clearing’, выл ’surface’, Пель­га kin community name

Тылойыл ~ Малая Валожикья (Mozhg.) < тыло ’clearing’, йыл ’peak, at the top’, Вало river name, Жикья < Xикъя kin community name

Шоргурт ~ Сыга 2 (Kez.) < шор ’middle, in the middle’, гурт ’village’, Сыга river name, 2 (second) – order of location of the village

Шурйыл ~ Шурил (Mozhg.) < шур ’river, riverlet’, ил < йыл ’upper reaches, source of a river’

Ягул (Zavyal) < яг ’pine forest, forest’, ул ’below, lower’, etc.

8) The flora and the characteristics of the scenery of the region, e.g.:

Бадьнюк ~ Баднюк (M-Purg.) < бад < бадь ’willow’, нюк ’ravine’

Xуё-Можга ~ Жуе-Можга (Vav.) < жуе < xуё < xуй ’field’ + -o suffix of possession, Можга kin community name

Zеглуд ~ Зеглуд (Jak-B.) < зег < zег ’rye’, луд ’field’

Кызошур ~ Арляново (Aln.) < кызо < кыз ’fir, spruce’ + -o possessive suffix, шур ’river, riverlet’, Арляново < Арлан anthroponym < арлан ’hamster’ + -ово Russian suffix

Сутэрнюк (Mozhg.) < сутэр ’currants’, нюк ’ravine’

Тэльгурт ~ Теньгурт (Uv.) < тень – corrupted from тэль ’forest’, гурт ’village’

:ашкагурт ~ Чашкагурт (Selt.) < ;ашка ’thick of a forest’, гурт ’village’

Яголуд (Vav.) < яг ’(pine) forest + -o possessive suffix, луд ’field’

Ягошур (Glaz.) < яг ’(pine) forest + -o possessive suffix, шур ’river, riverlet’.

9) Fauna of the region, e.g.:

Атасгурт ~ Петухово (Vav.) < атас ’rooster’, гурт ’village’

Бакагурт ~ Малая Валожикья (Mozhg.) < бака ’frog’, гурт ’village’, Вало river name, Жикья < Xикъя kin community name

Zозлуд ~ Зязлуд-Какси (Vav.) < зяз < zоз ’grasshopper’, луд ’field’, Какси < Какся kin community name

Кечгурт ~ Кежгурт (Syums.) < кеж – corrupted from кеч ’rabbit’, гурт ’village’

Коблагурт ~ Акмарово (Vav.) < кобла ’mare’, гурт ’village’, Акмарово < Акмар аnthroponym, -ово Russian suffix

Кыйлуд ~ Кейлуд-Зюнья (Selt.) < кей < кый ’snake’, Зюнья < Zуння kin community name

Парсьгурт ~ Пажгурт (Selt.) < паж – corrupted from парсь ’pig’, гурт ’village’

П

исэйгурт
~ Писеево (Aln.) < писе- < писэй ’cat’, гурт ’village’, -ево Russian suffix

Пыныгурт ~ Собакино (M-Purg.) < пыны ’dog’, гурт ’village’

Чуньыгурт ~ Жеребенки (Zavyal.) < чуньы ’foal’, гурт ’village’, etc.

10) Objects of economic importance, e.g.:

Вукогурт ~ Нижнее Корякино (Shark.) < вуко ’mill’, гурт ’village’, Корякин surname + -о Russian suffix

Кüашур ~ Квашур (Vav., Selt.) < кüа ’sanctuary, place for family prayer’, шур ’river, riverlet’, etc.

11) Events of human life, e.g.:

Бигержуам ~ Иманай (Jukam.) < бигер ’Tatar’, жуам ’burnt down’

Пашкаxуам ~ Силья (Uv.) < Пашка аnthroponym < Russian Павел, xуам ’burnt down’.

C) Three-component oikonyms. This type of names is far less frequent. They are usually secondary and are formed from either two-component oiko­nyms or hydronyms, e.g.:

Бадzым Скалгурт ~ Ольховка (Uv.) < бадzым ’big’, Скалгурт оikonym < скал ’cow’, гурт ’village’, Ольховка < Russian ольха ’alder (tree)’, -овка Russian suffix

Гуреzйыл Четкер ~ Верхний Четкер (Deb.) < гуреz ’hill’, йыл ’peak, at the top’, Четкер оikonym < четкер de-etymologized word referring to heights

Гуртлудчик ~ Гурклудчик (Syums.) < Гуртлуд оikonym < гурт ’village’, луд ’field’, чик < сик ’forest, underbrush’

Нöднюк починка ~ Верхняя Малая Салья (Kijas.) < Нöднюк оikonym < нöд ’mud, muddy’, нюк ’ravine’, починка ’outpost settlement’, Салья Ud­murt kin community name

Пичи Штангурт ~ Рябиновка (Uv.) < пичи ’small’, Штангурт оikonym < штан ’trousers’, гурт ’village’, Рябиновка < Russian рябина ’mountain ash, rowan-tree’, -овка Russian suffix

Сьöд Ошмес-Пельга ~ Итешево (M-Purg.) < сьöд ’black’, ошмес ’water springs, source’, Пельга kin community name, Итешево < Итеш аnth­roponym, -ево Russian suffix, etc.

Complex Russian-Udmurt official names of settlements are frequently to be found in Udmurtland, e.g.:

Нижний Армязь (Sar.) < Russian нижний ’lower’, армязь < Udmurt армес ’springs from a river bank; shifting marsh’

Пеганово (Glaz., Kez.) < Udmurt пеган – deverbal noun from пеганы ’to hide’, -ово Russian suffix, etc.

A

s a result of the interaction between Udmurt and Russian a number of Russian villages have Udmurt names even in official documents, e.g.:

Кузили (Zavyal.) < Кузили Old Udmurt personal name < кузили ’ant’

Гыбдан (Kizn.) < Udmurt гыбдан – deverbal noun from гыбданы ’to rot, decay, smoulder’

Лекшур (Syums.) < Udmurt лек ’wicked, angry, cantankerous’, шур ’river, riverlet, water springs’, etc.

When two languages interact, a bilateral process takes place. On the one hand, the phonemic set of Udmurt toponyms is adapted by Russian to its own sound system in the assimilation process. On the other hand, the majority of Udmurt toponyms acquires the productive affixes of Russian under the influence of Russian word formation (-ово/-ево or the affixes of plurality). In the districts inhabited by Russian poulation, however, names with Udmurt appellatives are actively present, such as гурт ’village’, шур ’river, riverlet’, вай ’branch (of a river), tributary’, луд ’field’, йыл (ил in its Russian adap­tation) ’upper reaches, source (of a river)’, кар ’town, town site’, ош­мeс ’water springs’, выр, мувыр ’hillock, height’, гоп ’ravine’ and others. The most widely spread lexeme in oikonyms is шур ’river, riverlet’. The fre­quen­cy of these appellatives in Udmurt oikonyms, as pointed out by R. P. Les­nikova and Z. M. Merkulova, reveals the following order: шур 84 times, гурт 30, вай 20, луд 15, мувыр 11 (Lesnikova—Merku­lo­va 1966: 110).

In the study of Udmurt toponymy as well as that of other regions of the former Soviet Union, it should be borne in mind that several national place names were replaced by Russian ones, which was dictated by purposeful political attitudes of a multiethnic state and as a result of which mirror-translated names emerged, e.g.:

Атасгурт ~ Пе­­тухово (Vav.) < Udmurt атас ’rooster’

Пуппы ~ Лутоха (Kijas.) < пуппы ’dry barked lime(tree)’

Сизьгурт ~ Дятлево (Aln.) < Udmurt сизь ’woodpecker’, гурт ’village’

Сьöд ошмес ~ Черный Ключ (Aln.) < сьöд ’black’, ошмес ’water springs’.

In the Udmurt–Tatar contact areas there are Udmurt–Tatar toponyms to be found. They are most wide-spread in the Mozhga and Alnashi districts, i.e. the south of Udmurtland. It should be noted, however, that the official and folk settlement names are frequently different, e.g.:

Варzыл ~ Варзибаш (Aln.) < Варzи (Варзи) river name, ыл < Udmurt йыл ’upper reaches, source’, баш < Tatar баш ’upper reaches, source’

Туймыü ~ Тоймобаш (Aln.) < Тоймо < Тойма river name (Udmurt name: Туймы), -ü < Udmurt йыü ’upper reaches, source’, баш < Tatar баш ’upper reaches, source’

:

ожйыл ~ Чежебаш (Mozhg.) < Чеж < Чаж river name (Udmurt name: :ож), -e epenthetic vowel, йыл ’upper reaches, source’, баш < Tatar баш ’upper reaches, source’.

As demonstrated by the examples, the oikonyms above are mirror translations, but the picture is somewhat different in the forms current among the people: both components are Udmurt forms.

There are different types of names to be found in settlements where the po­pulation is mixed or which are adjecent to villages inhabited by other nationalities. In districts with an Udmurt, Russian, Tatar, Mari population, besides the official name, which is of Russian or Udmurt origin in most cases, one and the same settlement can have several parallel names. Thus, e.g., village Дубровский (this is the official name) in the Kijasovo district has the following folk names: Udmurt Починка (< починка ’outpost-settlement’, from the village Kološur) and Виль Тiгырмен (< виль ’new’, тiгырмен < Tatar тегермäн ’mill’); Russian Дубровск (< Russian дубрава ’oak-grove’ + -ск suffix) and Гребени (probably from Russian гребень ’hill summit of oblong shape, especially one notched, edge of a mountain ridge’; Murzaev 1984: 157); Tatar Бламбей (< Tatar Боланбай Old Turkic personal name; Sattarov-Mulille 1998: 64); village Колошур (official name) – Udmurt Вужгурт (< вужгурт ’village site’) and Вуж Тiгырмен (< вуж ’old’, тiгырмен < Tatar тегермäн ’mill’), Russian Еманаево (< Яман Old Turkic-Tatar personal name + -ай affix [Atamanov 1990: 172, Sattarov-Mulille 1998: 303] + Russian suffix -ево). The village Старая Игра, surrounded by Udmurt, Russian, Tatar and Mari settlements in the Grachovo district, has five names (Atamanov 1988: 93): Udmurt Вужгурт (’village site’) and Вуж Эгра (< Udmurt вуж ’old’, Эгра kin community name); Russian Нижняя Игра; Tatar Чибышавыл (< Чибыш Tatar anthroponym < Turkic чебеш ’chicken’ [Atamanov 1990: 343, 341] + Tatar авыл ’village’); Mari Чивышъял (Чивыш Tatar anthroponym, see above + Mari ял ’village, settlement’ < Chuvash ял ’(village) settlement’ [ESČJa. 2: 497]). The Udmurt village Сьöд Ошмес (< сьöд ’black’, ошмес ’water springs, source’, Alnashi district) has the official name Черный Ключ ’black springs’, and the Tatars living in the adjacent settlements call it Кара Чишмä (Tatar кара ’black’, чишмä ’source, water springs’). The oikonyms noted above bear evidence to how sounds change in the process of names current in one language when they are acquired by another, the example quoted showing the change in the Tatar and Mari forms against an Udmurt background.

T

he contact between different languages has led to the enrichment of the Udmurt toponymic system owing to the emergence of new elements. In a few cases, however, there are objectionable phenomena to be observed. What is meant is the distortion of national toponyms to adapt them to Russian forms at all costs. Distorted settlement names can have the following types: Башмур (Uv.) < Барышмувыр Барыш male personal name < Turkic барыш 1) ’march, walking, circulation, development’; 2) ’peace, agreement, re­conciliation’; 3) ’profit, gain’ (Atamanov 1990: 75) + мувыр ’hill, height’; Горзелуд (Uv.) < Udmurt гурезь ’hill’ + -o possessive suffix + луд ’field’; Дыгдан (Uv.) < Udmurt гыбдан – deverbal noun from гыбданы ’rot, decay, smoulder’; Сектыр (Igr.) < Udmurt сьöд ’black’ + кыр ’clearing, forest­less area’; Успьян (M-Purg.) < юсь ’swan’ + пиян – deverbal noun from пия­­ны ’breed fledgelings’; Пажгурт (Selt.) < Udmurt парсь ’pig’ + гурт ’village’; Чистостем (Uv.) < Udmurt ;уштаськем – parti­ciple from the verb ;уштаськыны ’burn down’, etc. The oikonyms cited are distorted to such an extent that it is impossibloe to decode them against either Udmurt, Russian or any other linguistic background. Their true etymology can be given only after the language they belong to has been identified.

  1   2

Добавить документ в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconIn the present study, words from proper names are divided into types, viz words from person’s names and words from place names

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconNames of those believed to have been ‘Jack The Ripper’ you may get one or more of these names during your Investigation. You may get another name completely

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconA preliminary glance at the data listed below should make my talk more intelligible. They consist of a a list of geographical names, b names of four Ottoman

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconAlternative Names gray-head prairie coneflower, drooping coneflower, pinnate prairie coneflower Uses

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconDeep Rivers Your Number Is Up Mlp

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconNames

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconSome names associated with menkae

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconSpelling: names

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconItalian names

1. The majority of settlements of Udmurtland are situated near rivers, streams and springs, so a number of them took their names from hydronyms. In most cases, the head of these names is the Udmurt appellative шур iconOther names and varieties

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
kk.convdocs.org



База данных защищена авторским правом ©kk.convdocs.org 2012
обратиться к администрации
kk.convdocs.org
Главная страница